Celestial sound

The music of the spheres is the music created by the orchestra of the universe. Waves are based on the oscillation of a medium which rises and declines periodically. The period of time equals 1/frequency. The frequency equals 1/period of time.

The frequency f of the tone a‘ equals 1/440 Hz which equals 0,0022727 seconds. One earth day equals 1/86.400 seconds. The duration of the years of the saros period equals 1/18 seconds. The years of the precision of the earth axis equals 1/25.920 seconds. The first overtone of a sound is its octave with a proportion of 2/1. Multiplication of the value of the frequency with 2^n calculates a value which is audible to human beings. Electromagnetic waves can also be converted into sound.

The value received by applying the formula used to calculate the octaves of astronomical periods (1/a) times x times 2^n equals f is not accurate. Imprecise values occur at the astonomical and the musical level.

Recurring patterns, numerical series and periodicity of the cycles of the celestial bodies connect the sciences of music and cosmology.



AI and music

Creative artificial intelligence can be the result of training neural nets to generate content based on the analysis of a large number of pieces of music. If the computer program is taught the rules of a certain tonal system it can rearrange sounds and create music. Music theory is based on rules which structure the simultaneous or the successive sound of frequencies. It is possible to determine statistical values for the coordination of sounds and the arrangement of scales.

Tones or harmonies can be arranged according to logical concepts based on axioms and theorems. The program can also compose a piece of music applying reinforcement learning. Recurrent neural networks (RNN) can use musical phrases as input and generate an output in form of a sequence, a variation, a diminuition or an augmentation. Time plays an important role concerning the programming of this network.

Artificial intelligence can be applied to the realm of digital sound processing. Pitch and time of audio files can be formalized and the sound can be optimized, edited and corrected.

AI is appropriate for the nature of music which is based on numbers. Psychoacoustic research shapes the development of the technology of music. The effect of the connection of certain harmonies and sequences of tones on the listener is predictable.




The composition of music is interconnected with its arrangement. It is possible to write a piece of electronic music for an orchestra, but this music is most suitable for the small and complex form of chamber music. It is appropriate to emphasize the particularities of the synthesizer. Composing is the art of structuring sound and arranging the entirety of the frequencies of the universe.

Of course there are historical conventions determining methods for beautiful compositions, but they do not exclude the development of new sound systems in the future. Every rule which has been created in the course of the history of music from the counterpoint to atonal music is a trial which aims at organizing the limitless possibilities of determining frequencies and their proportions. Research in the realm of the development of the tonal system presupposes the mathematical, physical and electronical or electroacoustical creation of new scales and groups of sounds which can be arranged reasonably by the composer. These sounds can be abstract and they do not have to appear as so-called noise in reality.

The achievements of the historical music theory form the point of departure for the creation of new structures. Their appreciation is the core of the renewal of a new sonic art. Zahra M.M.A. Sadiq’s album “Gardens of the Nile” is based on polytonality and the reinterpretation of compositional techniques characterized by colourful harmonics, the extended tonality of the early moderns and contemporary music, the elaborate counterpoint and highly structured serial techniques.

The tonal system is still worth being developed. The cosmos is number and harmony and music is related to this model. Many harmonies and frequencies which can be found in space resemble the sounds of music used on earth. Sound systems avoid prime numbers. The ear and taste of the trained musician is the benchmark for the creation of the sound systems of the future.




Pythagoras regarded the cosmos as number and harmony. The physical frequencies which are symbolized by the scales form the core of music. For those who agree that the importance of harmony in music is timeless the production of electronic music is a challenge. Using a guitar-to-MIDI conversion system the sound diversity can be enhanced by using a fretless guitar.

Regardless of the limitations based on the memory of the converter the synthesizer creates the sound by mistuning the digitally controlled oscillators (DCO) relative to each other. The low-frequency oscillation (LFO) modifies the sound of the very low frequencies. Other effects like the tremolo, the pitch wheel or the vibrato for example influence the overall sound.

Musicians using instruments like the synthesizer can formulate their imagination of an ideal instrument. It is not necessary that one synthesizer produces 1000 and 1 sounds. It would be more impressive if the instrument permitted the creation of a specific framework of sounds including their overtones and undertones using precise tone generators. Composers are part of the process of producing the electronic instruments. The creation of the instrument defines the development of its music.



The Art of engineering

Is audio engineering science or art? One could ask for a definition of science. Or it is possible to ask for a definition of the concept definition.

One could say: Science describes the cosmos in a way that general rules are derivable. These rules contribute to the comprehension of the cosmos and its positive development.

Science is dialogue, argueing, justifying and reasoning. Posing the right questions is more important than giving answers.

Audio engineering is theoretical. Sounds can be described in a physical and a mathematical sense. Audio engineering is empirical. The perception of sound can be captured with the method of statistical research. The scientist should use both methods which depend on each other and his view should move from one method to the other. Audio engineering is a form of art. Like mathematicians audio engineers prefer the most beautiful solution for a complex problem. It does not make a difference whether a human being programs a computer which composes a piece of music or whether the human being composes the computer music himself.

Combined with the art of composing audio engineering is an artistic science creating a sonic impression based on numbers and proportions. It deserves the most sophisticated appreciation.