The Ghost of Ontology

Ontologies conceptualize thinking and divide tasks of an organizational unit. They are theoretical systems structuring data which form the input of a neural net. They are the ghost underlying thinking in general and they depend on thinking. They also depend on the subject of the research. The way the subject matter is comprehended determines the quality of the ontology.

They can be expressed in formal languages structured by logical relations and operators. Meta-ontologies explore the methodology of the systematization. Ontologies are connected with the subject of the research. If it is musical and mathematical, the ontology can be beautiful and proportionate.







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World Music Genres

In the twentieth century different forms of world music were developed. After the introduction of these genres by singular musicians or small circles of musicians there was a period of consolidation in the last century. With the beginning of the twenty-first century the world musicians can name and characterize their compositions.

If the musician wants to express a reference to a former period of music he can use the expression “neo“ to indicate that he presents an old form introducing new parameters. He can also create a new genre which only pretends to be an allusion of the old forms. The musician can use terms referring to a new form of a music genre which has already been established.

The genre can be specified by the arrangement which can be based on a saxophone or a synthesizer. In addition the genre can be defined by the structure of the music. It can be based on a certain form of music like the nuba, the sonata form or minimalist and processual forms.

If the musician wants to introduce a new genre he can define the characteristics of his compositions in a positive way.
Zahra M.M.A. Sadiq is a pioneer naming her genre “floating counterpoint”. The characterization of this genre which is complex is outlined in the blog post “floating counterpoint”. The elaborate musicological classification and characterization will be published in her new book which will be published in 2017.

Naming a genre according to a date, for example avant-garde, modernism, postmodernism, post postmodernism, defines the genre as well. The music can also be specified according to the location of its emergence or its effective radius or a combination of both.

Please browse this blog to find more information on the genre floating counterpoint.




Composing electronic music presupposes that the composer can be proficient on his instrument and that he can be an expert of music theory. He can study the composers and their music of different eras and describe their relationship to the standards of their time.

Taking into account the historical development of music, its technical and theoretical basis the oeuvre of a composer can be a valuable contribution to music history and it can even influence a new genre. As far as Zahra M.M.A. Sadiq’s theoretical research is concerned, the empirical evaluation and validation is still to be completed by universities before the theoretical contribution becomes acknowledged.

Please browse this blog to find more information on the genre floating counterpoint.



Quantum Composition

Basically quantum computing and machine learning belong to different realms of science. The quantum computer is more suitable to solve tasks like factorisation and encryption. Because particular properties of algorithms are more appropriate for quantum computing than classical algorithms the quantum computer can solve specific tasks of machine learning better than a classical computer.

Techniques which resemble quantum computing techniques even affect classical forms of computing. Hybrid techniques combine the advantages of both techniques. Quantum machine learning can be based on supervised learning, unsupervised learning or reinforcement learning.

The specific
advantages of the quantum composition can be based on the capacity of the quantum computer which can search very quickly. Applying suitable algorithms the quantum composition can solve questions that will shape the future of the theory of music. Using special development tools or libraries developers can create particular applications and algorithms.




Unusual sounds can be produced by

* innovative and new instruments

* instruments which are played in an unusual manner

* instruments which are not common in a culture

* instruments which cease to be popular in the course of history.

An instrument like Orphion which produces the sound electronically can be integrated into a DAW using an audiobus and into other other synth apps via MIDI. The musician can use virtual pads and choose a form of tonality which is appropriate for his music. The instrument combines the advantages of the conventional electronic sound generation which can be learned as a particular instrument with a specific sound and the variety of the configuration options concerning the pad sensitivity and the sound quality.